The institute was created on the basis of the Faculty of Biology and Chemistry in 2014. The history of the faculty began in 1933 with the formation of the Faculty of Natural Sciences at the Mari State Teacher Training Institute. In January, 1972 it became part of Mari State University and was named the Faculty of Biology and Chemistry. At that time three departments were opened at the faculty: the Department of Anatomy and Zoology; the Department of Phytology; the Department of Chemistry. The faculty trained students in two specialities: "Biology" and "Chemistry".
At present the students of the Institute of Medicine and Natural Science are trained in three specialities: Medical treatment, Pharmacy, Fundamental and Applied Chemistry and in four subject areas leading to a bachelor’s degree: Chemistry, Ecology and Use of Natural Resources, Biology, Pedagogical Education (Biology).
There are three departments at the Institute (the Department of Ecology, the Department of Biology, the Department of Chemistry), a research laboratory of molecular bio-energetics, a zoological museum, an ontogenetiс museum and an herbarium, the "YOLA" herbarium, an agrobiological research station and a biological research station in the "Big Kokshaga" reserve, a training base in the village of Shushera.
The teaching staff consists of highly skilled professionals: 8 Doctors of Sciences and full professors, Candidates of Sciences and Associate Professors. This explains the large amount of state-financed research carried out at the Institute. Students of all specialities take an active part in scientific research. The most talented graduates interested in research take a post-graduate course at Mari State University, at the institutes of the Russian Academy of Sciences, at Lomonosov Moscow State University.